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発行:日本スポーツパフォーマンス学会 (Japan Society of Sports Performance Research) Online Edition: ISSN 2187-1787 
   
  updated 2018/1/11  
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最近掲載の論文要旨
1721 競技レベルの高い相手との試合中におけるバスケットボール選手の運動出力と心拍応答
藤井慶輔(理化学研究所), 小山孟志(東海大学)

多くの球技などのスポーツにおいて,競技レベルが上がるに従い,競技特有の身体接触や加減速などの動きの激しさが増すため,選手の運動出力が大きくなり,その一方で生理的応答が増大する.これらは高い競技レベルの相手との試合で初めて計測できると考えられるが,未だ定量的に明らかになっていない.そこで本研究ではバスケットボールを対象に,経験的仮説である,高い競技レベル相手に後半で負荷が蓄積して何らかの運動出力や生理的応答の変化が見られる,という仮説を検証した.対象チームは関東大学バスケットボール連盟1部に所属するチームとし,対戦チームは同2部,同1部,Bリーグ1部(プロ)との各1試合,計3試合を計測した.試合前半においては,競技レベルが高いプロ相手には運動出力のレベルを高める傾向があるものの,心拍応答に関しては相手の競技レベルに関係ない傾向にあることが示された.しかし試合後半においては,移動距離・速度は対プロにおいても高いレベルを維持していたものの,出場時間あたりの高加速度の頻度は4名中3名で低下し,心拍最大後の最小値は2名中2名が増加(心拍の回復が低下)したことが明らかとなった.計測した選手数が少ないため今後はより多くの試合を計測する必要があるが,これらの指標が高い競技レベル相手に生じる物理・生理的負荷を示す指標になりうる可能性が示唆された.

Motor output and heart rate response of basketball players during a game against highly competitive opposing team
In many ball games, as the competition level increases, the intensity of movements such as physical contact and acceleration/deceleration characteristic of that game increases, with the result that the motor output and physiological response increase. These phenomena can be measured only in a game in which a team is playing at a high level of competition. However, reports of quantitative changes in these measures have not been published. The present study examined the exercise and physiological responses of basketball players who were accumulating loads in the second half of a game involving a high level of competition. In the first half of the game, although the game was at a high level of competition (i.e., against a professional team), the players’ exercise output level tended to increase, but their heart rates were not related to the level of competition of the opposing team. However, in the second half of the game, although the players’ moving distance/speed was maintained at a high level against the professional team, the frequency of high acceleration in relation to participation time decreased in 3 of the 4 players measured. Furthermore, the minimum heart rate after the heart rate had reached a maximum increased (that is, the recovery of the heart rate decreased) in both of the 2 players measured. Due to small number of players measured in the present study, players in more games should be measured. However, the present results suggest that the indices measured may be indicators of the physical/physiological load occurring in games that are at a high level of competition.
1712 マット運動における「伸膝前転」のコーチング - 伝導技術に着目して
佐藤友樹(大阪産業大学),土屋純(早稲田大学)

マット運動における「伸膝前転」について,指導に必要な情報はすでに多く明かされているが,現在も習得・習熟のための指導方法あるいは練習方法の研究をしていく必要性がある.そこで,本研究では指導の実践Tで小学生1名,指導の実践Uで小学生2名を対象として,マット運動における「伸膝前転」の指導を行い,この技の技術獲得のための練習方法について有益な知見を得ることを目的とした.その結果,各対象者は伸膝前転の運動経過における腰角を大きく開く動作の習熟レベルが向上し,本指導で用いた練習方法が伝導技術における腰角を開く動作の習得・習熟に有効であることが示唆された.

Coaching elementary school students on the straight leg forward roll on the mat: focusing on the technique of transmitting movement upward through the body
Much has been published about how to coach the straight leg forward roll on the mat, but further study of coaching and training methods for the acquisition and mastery of this movement is still necessary. The present study involved actual coaching of straight leg forward rolls on the mat with one elementary school student who was at step 1 and two who were at step 2, with the aim of collecting useful information about training methods that would assist students to acquire this technique. After they were coached, the acquisition level of each of the students improved with respect to the motion of opening the angle of the hip during straight leg forward rolls. This suggests that the present training method may be useful for helping novice gymnasts acquire and master the motion of opening the angle of the hip so that the motion of their legs is transmitted to their upper body during straight leg forward rolls.
1718 三段跳における助走歩数が跳躍パフォーマンスに及ぼす影響:単一事例による実験的検討
濱中良(鹿屋体育大学),永原隆(鹿屋体育大学),松尾彰文(鹿屋体育大学),小森大輔(鹿屋体育大学),加藤忠彦(鹿屋体育大学),近藤亮介(神戸大学),金高宏文(鹿屋体育大学)

本研究は,三段跳における異なる助走歩数による跳躍練習のための基礎資料を得ることを目的とした.そのために,大学男子三段跳競技者一人を対象に,助走歩数を2歩から18歩まで段階的に伸ばす際に,助走速度ならびにホップ・ステップ・ジャンプの跳躍パフォーマンスとそれに影響する変数(跳躍距離,支持時間,速度,地面反力,力積)がどのように変化するかについて,50m にわたり連続的に計測が可能な圧力板走行路を用いて検証した.また,折れ線回帰分析を用いて,助走歩数と跳躍パフォーマンスとの関係性の変化がどの歩数で生じるかについて検討した.その結果,助走歩数を増加させていく三段跳の跳躍練習では以下の点に留意して行うとよいと考えられた.@ 助走歩数8歩(約15m)以下の場合と12歩(約25m)以上場合における助走歩数の増減の影響がキネマティック変数で大きく異なる.A 助走歩数8歩(約15m)以下の場合は,助走歩数の増減で跳躍パフォーマンスの変数が大きく変動することに注意して行うべきであろう.B 12歩(約25m)以上場合では助走歩数の増減で全助走と大きな差異が生じないことを理解し,練習の目的や体調に応じて活用するとよいであろう.C ステップ,ジャンプの踏切における水平速度の減少を最小限にできるように動作することを重視し,身体を鉛直に加速し持ち上げることに余り留意しないでよい可能性がある.

Influence of the number of steps in the approach run on performance in the triple jump: Analysis of a single case
The present study examined the influence of the number of steps in the approach run on performance of the triple jump. The participant was a university male triple jumper. His jumping performance was measured by a pressure running board that could measure continuous performance over 50 meters. The measures obtained were the speed of the approach run, his hop, step, and jump performance, changes in the distance jumped, his holding time, speed, ground reaction force, and impulse force, when the number of steps in the approach run was gradually increased from 2 to 18. Linear regression analysis was used to find the number of steps for which the relation between the length of the approach run and his jump performance became critical. The results suggest that the following points should be taken into account when practice for the triple jump includes a gradual increase in the number of steps in the approach run: 1) The influence of the number of steps depends very much on the kinematic variable when the number of steps is fewer than 8 (approximately 15 meters) or more than 12 (approximately 25 meters). 2) When the number of steps is 8 or fewer, the variability of the jump performance will changed greatly in relation to the number of steps. 3) When the number of steps is 12 or more, there is not much difference due to the number of steps compared to a full-length approach. 4) Reduction of the horizontal speed must be minimized at the take-off of the step and the jump, and it may not be necessary to raise the body vertically by acceleration.
1647 吊り輪動作再獲得に難渋した男子体操選手−肩甲骨周囲筋機能不全の一症例
長ア進(伏見岡本病院), 福島秀晃(伏見岡本病院), 三浦雄一郎(伏見岡本病院), 森原徹(京都府立医科大学)

男子体操選手における肩関節脱臼術後の吊り輪競技復帰に向けたリハビリテーションを検証した.検証作業として倒立・懸垂動作及び吊り輪動作における肩甲骨周囲筋群(僧帽筋各線維・前鋸筋)の動作筋電図を施行した.得られた筋電図波形から倒立と懸垂動作課題において健側との比較を行った.対象者は懸垂及び吊り輪動作において患側の肩甲骨挙上・内転筋(僧帽筋上部・中部線維)と下制筋(僧帽筋下部線維・前鋸筋)の筋活動に漸増・漸減パターンが認められなかった.リハビリテーションとして肩甲骨挙上・内転筋と下制筋の筋活動に漸増・漸減パターンを再獲得する目的として,重錘を持たせた側臥位での肩関節外転−内転運動を行った.運動療法後,吊り輪動作が可能となり,運動療法前・後における吊り輪動作の筋活動パターンに改善を認めた.体操競技復帰を目指したリハビリテーションでは筋力強化に加えて肩甲骨周囲筋の円滑な筋活動パターンの再獲得を行う運動療法が必要である.

Rehabilitation for dysfunction of the muscles surrounding the scapula: Male gymnast with difficulty in regaining the movements needed for still rings exercises
The present study describes the rehabilitation of a male gymnast who aimed at returning to still rings events after surgery for a dislocated shoulder. Examination of the gymnast included motion electromyogram of the muscles surrounding his scapula (the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles) during the movements involved in hanging handstands and still rings exercises. The wave forms obtained from the electromyograms on the affected side were compared with those from the unaffected side. No pattern of gradual increase or decrease was observed for his adductor muscles (the upper and middle fibers of the trapezius muscle) or abductor muscles (the lower fibers of the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles) during hang and still rings movements. He then did exercises in order to regain the pattern of gradual increase or decrease of the adductor and abductor muscles, such as abductor and adductor motions of the shoulder joint while holding a weight in a lateral position. After doing this exercise, the gymnast became able to perform the still rings exercises. When his performance before and after the rehabilitation exercises was compared, an improvement in the motion pattern of his muscles during the still rings movements was found. These results suggest that the rehabilitation of gymnasts who aim to return to the still rings after an operation for a dislocated shoulder may require them to regain a smooth pattern of motion of the muscles surrounding the scapula, in addition to strengthening those muscles.
1716 低負荷全力ペダリングトレーニングが球技スポーツ選手の疾走能力に及ぼす影響
大石祥寛(宮崎学園短期大学), 渡邊夏海(東京YMCA社会体育保育専門学校), 蔭山雅洋(日本スポーツ振興センター), 亀田麻依(鹿屋体育大学), 前田明(鹿屋体育大学)

本研究は,低負荷全力ペダリングトレーニングが球技スポーツ選手4名の疾走能力に及ぼす影響について検討した.トレーニングは負荷1.0 kpでの7秒間の全力ペダリング運動を用い,5本 × 2セットを週3回4週間実施した.疾走能力の評価として25 m走タイムおよび0―10 m区間のピッチ・ストライドの変化を観察した.その結果,25 m走タイムは4名中3名が短縮した.また,0―10 m区間のピッチ・ストライドのトレーニング前の特性およびトレーニングによる変化はそれぞれの被検者で異なるものであった.各被検者の疾走の変化様相を検討した結果,4週間の低負荷全力ペダリングトレーニングは,スタートダッシュ時のピッチが低い球技選手やショートスプリント後半の加速率が低い球技選手に対しては疾走能力向上の有効性が高く,スタートダッシュ時のピッチの優位性が高い選手には有効ではないものと考えられた.

Effects of low-load full-power pedaling training on the running ability of ballgame players
The present study examined the effect of low-load full-power pedaling training on the running ability of 4 ballgame players. In the training, the participants used a full-power pedaling motion under a load of 1.0 kp for 7 seconds. This was repeated 5 times per set, 2 sets x 3 times per week, for 4 weeks. The participants' running ability was evaluated from their 25-meter run time and their pitch and stride in the 0-10 meter portion of that run. The results showed that 3 of the 4 athletes improved their 25-meter run time. When the participants’ scores before and after training were compared, it was found that each of them showed different changes in pitch and stride in the 0-10 meter portion. These results suggest that the low-load full-power pedaling training may have been effective for those athletes who were low in pitch at the start of the dash and for those who were low in acceleration in the latter half of the short sprint, whereas it may not have been effective for those athletes who were superior in pitch at the start of the dash prior to participating in the present training.
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